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Explain a firm’s equilibrium with the help of isoquants and isocost line

If the industry expands, the organization will benefit from better transport networks,infrastructure and other facilities. Scale marketing economy is achieved in case of bulk purchase, branding, and advertising when large organizations have broadened their marketing budgets over large output. For example, large organizations enjoy the benefits of advertising costs as they cover a larger audience. On the other hand, small organizations pay the same advertising costs as big ones, but do not enjoy such benefits in advertising costs. The firm increases its total outlay in order to expand its output. Economic region a territorial component of a country’s national economy.

the slope of iso-quant explains

This distinction is based on the nature of the factor input. A line joining tangency points of isoquants and isocosts is called the expansion path. An isoquants shows all those combinations of factors which produce same level of output. These curves are also known as equal-product curves as the lines represent various combinations of inputs that produce the same level of outputs.

iso-quant curve has negative slope.

In Economics, an iso-quant is a curve drawn by joining the combinations of changing the quantities of two or more inputs which give the same level of output. Production function may involve, at a time, the use of more than one variable input. This is presented with the help of iso- quant curves. The two words ‘Iso’ and ‘quant’ are derived from the Greek language, meaning ‘equal’ and ‘quantity’ respectively. In our presentation only two factors, labour and capital are used. • Each isoquants is oval shaped – It means that at some point it begins to retreat from each axis.

  • The function assumes that output is the function of two factors viz.
  • When suppliers and workers focus on a particular industry due to its size result in specialization economies of scale.
  • For instance, 30% increase in variable input result in 10% increase in output.
  • Diminishing returns to scale refers to a situation in which output increases in lesser proportion than increase in factor inputs.
  • Production process creates economic well-being into the nation.

As,” that line which reflects least cost method of producing different levels of output, when factor prices remains constant”. The choice of a particular combination of factors depends on technical possibilities of production and the prices of factors used for the production of a particular product. Return of scale refers to proportionate change in productivity from proportionate change in all the inputs.

Law of Substitution or Principle of Least Cost Combination

Marshall has classified these economies of large-scale production into internal economies and external economies. Internal economies are those, which are opened to a single factory or a single firm independently of the action of other firms. A technical relation that shows how inputs are converted into output is depicted by an isoquant curve. It shows the optimum combinations of factor inputs with the help of prices of factor inputs and their quantities that are used to produce the same output. • Higher isoquants represents higher level of output – An isoquant lying on the right indicates larger amount of output. That is on the higher isoquant we have either more units of one factor of production or more units of both factors.

  • When there are more curves than one, the curve on the right represents greater output and curves on the left show less output.
  • A household of isoquants may be represented by an isoquant map, a graph combining a variety of isoquants, each representing a unique quantity of output.
  • Marketing economies of scale –Marketing economies of scale is the ability to spread advertising and marketing budget over an increasing output.
  • The substitution between the two factors is technically possible.

In this case fixed factor land becomes too much inadequate to the increase in variable factor labour. An isoquants is also called equal product curve or iso-product curve. It describes the agency’s different strategies for producing a given level of output. This video explains tips on how to calculate and use the marginal rate of technical substitution . We start by studying how to calculate it, then move on to use it in order to correctly draw isoquant curves and, finally, we analyse the MRTS for various sorts of isoquants.

(i) An Isoquant Slopes Downward from Left to Right:

See an economy where organizations enjoy the benefits of purchasing raw materials and selling finished products at a lower cost. Large organizations buy raw materials in bulk; therefore, enjoy the advantages of transportation charge from Bank, easy credit, and prompt delivery of products to customers. The law that explains the Shape of TVC and subsequent TC is called the law of variable proportions. Where C is the production cost and X is the output level. This occurs at a point of tangency between an isocost line and an isoquant curve. The slope of the Isoquant must be equal to the slope of isocost line.

the slope of iso-quant explains

For example, in the case of constant returns to scale, when the inputs are doubled, the output is also doubled. Producer’s equilibrium implies a situation in which a producer maximises his/her profits. Thus, he /she chooses the quantity of inputs and output with the main aim of achieving the maximum profits. dwolla india Let us suppose that there are two factors namely., labour and capital. An Iso-quant schedule shows the different combinations of these two inputs that yield the same level of output. The producer increases the output from one hundred models to 200 items by growing the amount combination of each the X and Y.

This slope is known as the marginal fee of technical substitution of capital for labour . See uneconomical raising the cost of production in the organization. The main factors affecting the cost of production of the organization include the lack of determination, supervision and technical difficulties. Uneconomics of scale occurs when the long-term average cost of an organization increases. It can occur when the tissue becomes excessively large.

Producer’s Equilibrium

There are 2 exceptions to the normal shape of the isoquant curve and these are as follows. Here, MR is an additional amount earned over and above TR when more than 1 unit of product is sold. MC is an additional cost incurred over and above TC when more than 1 unit of product is produced. We will now examine this approach with the following 2 situations.

  • If more of one factor is used, less of the other factor is needed for producing the same level of output.
  • Marginal cost should cut the Marginal revenue curve from the bottom.
  • The term ‘production’ is very important and broader concept in economics.

A decline in MRTS along an isoquant for producing the same stage of output is known as the diminishing marginal price of substitution. If the agency hires another unit of labor and moves from level to , the agency can cut back its capital by three models but stays on the same isoquant, and the MRTS is 3. The short run is defined as the period during which at least one of the input is fixed.

curve does not touch either X axis or Y axis.

In economics the line OP and OQ are known as Ridge lines. The concept of profit and loss is basically what defines any business. Any financial gain in the business goes straight to the owner of the business. Also, the maintenance section will be restructured by merging electrical and mechanical maintenance sections into one section headed by the deputy of the factory manager. / P ratios and less of those with a low Mpp / P ratio until they all become equal.

The stage 2 ends, when the total product increases at a diminishing rate until it reaches it maximum point H. In this stage both marginal product and average product are diminishing but remain positive. Because fixed factor land becomes inadequate with the increase in the quantity of variable factor labour.


Economies of scale are defined as cost advantages that an organization can achieve by expanding its production over the long term. The production function can also be classified on the basis of factor proportion i.e. a) Fixed proportion production function and b) Variable proportion production function. If the organization’s production goals and objectives are not properly communicated to employees in the organization, they can lead to overproduction or production. An expansion path is a line connecting optimal input combinations as the scale of production expands. Other factors influencing the economic region formation are administrative and political units , technical and economic conditions. Explain a firm’s equilibrium with the help of isoquants and isocost line.

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